Neil deGrasse Tyson: Life on Europa, Jupiter's Moons, Ice Fishing and Racket Sports



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Where there is water, there is life—and Europa’s got water alright: scientists believe it has twice the volume of Earth’s oceans swirling beneath its kilometers-thick ice crust. A moon in Jupiter’s massive orbit, Europa has captivated astrophysicists, including Neil deGrasse Tyson, because it has completely blown open the borders in the search for life in our universe. Europa is well outside of the life-supporting “Goldilocks Zone”. Tyson explains how liquid water can exist in such a frozen part of our solar system, and how engineers might approach getting through all that ice to potentially come face to face/membrane with life, whether simple or complex. It won’t be too long before NASA’s ‘Europa Clipper’ mission makes its move to investigate the habitability of the icy moon: it will head for Europa in the 2020s. Tyson’s new book is
Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.

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NEIL DEGRASSE TYSON

Neil deGrasse Tyson was born and raised in New York City where he was educated in the public schools clear through his graduation from the Bronx High School of Science. Tyson went on to earn his BA in Physics from Harvard and his PhD in Astrophysics from Columbia.  He is the first occupant of the Frederick P. Rose Directorship of the Hayden Planetarium. His professional research interests are broad, but include star formation, exploding stars, dwarf galaxies, and the structure of our Milky Way. Tyson obtains his data from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as from telescopes in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and in the Andes Mountains of Chile.Tyson is the recipient of nine honorary doctorates and the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. His contributions to the public appreciation of the cosmos have been recognized by the International Astronomical Union in their official naming of asteroid “13123 Tyson”.

Tyson’s new book is Astrophysics for People in a Hurry (2017).

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TRANSCRIPT:

Neil deGrasse Tyson: Nobody doesn’t love Europa. Let me back up.

When we think of places you might find life we typically think of the Goldilocks zone around a star where water would be liquid in its natural state, and if you get a little too close to the star heat would evaporate the water and you don’t have it anymore, it’s gone. Too far away, it would freeze and neither of those states of H2O are useful to life as we know it. We need liquid water. So you can establish this green zone, this habitable zone, this Goldilocks zone where if you find a planet orbiting there: hey, good chance it could have liquid water. Let’s look there first for life as we know it.

Now, it turns out that this source of heat, of course, is traceable to the sun, and if you go farther out everything would or should be frozen, all other things being equal. But Europa, a moon of Jupiter sitting well outside of the Goldilocks zone, is kept warm. Not from energy sources traceable to the sun, but from what we call the tidal forces of Jupiter itself.

So Jupiter and surrounding moons are actually pumping energy into Europa. And how does it do that? As Europa orbits Jupiter its shape changes. It’s not fundamentally different from tides rising and falling on Earth. The shape of the water system of the earth is responding to tidal forces of the moon and when you do that to a solid object, the solid object is stressing and because of this, a consequence of this is that you are pumping energy into the object.

It is no different from when you say—anyone who’s familiar with racquet sports, indoor racquet sports, it could be racquetball or squash—you say, “Let’s warm up the ball before we start playing.” You want to hit it around a few times. You are literally warming up the ball. It’s not just simply, “Let’s get loose,” it’s, you are literally warming up the ball. How? You are distorting it every time you smack it and then the resilience of the ball pops it back into shape, and every time you do that, every smack, you’re pumping energy into the ball. That’s not fundamentally different from what’s going on in orbit around Jupiter.

So you have this frozen world Europa, completely frozen on its surface, but you look at the surface and there are cracks in the ice. There are ridges in the ice where there’s a crack and it’s shifted and then re-froze. So this ridge has a discontinuity in the crack and it continues in another place. So what this tells you is that Europa cannot be com…

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  • Neil looks like a very kinky man.

    Penis March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Those dark ridges on the ice contain carbon-based molecules, essential for life!

    Thomas Richardson March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • It’s to bad he died in that creepy sex accident

    Nick Linn March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • 97 people that disliked are probably whacky christians

    Johnny NiteTrain March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Insufferable pop-science guy

    Association of Free People March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Love this guy

    Dylan Newell March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Io: Fire / Europa:Water / Ganymede:Air / Callisto:Earth

    Shared resonance – 28:14:7:3

    Optimiste Obstinata Orbiculate March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • probes should have been sent to Europa a long time ago to investigate the possibility of life!

    ramzeen.m March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Moons are tidally locked to their planets, so no rotation like earth, even if life is found there humans probably won't survive since there won't be a stable atmosphere

    Trushal Gaikwad March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • imagine theres a primitive civilization under the ice of europa.

    Shqipe Autochthonous March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • WHERE WERE YOU NEIL IN THE 80’s….. because all my earth and sciences biology teachers did was show movie 🍿. That had nothing to do with anything relevant to the subject. We never used the big telescopes 🔭 , the classes were a waste… I wanted so much more ..

    Cin Firefly March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Neil is the only scientist I can understand without having to look up every single word another scientist says 😂

    Nibbles March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Skip. This guy hasn't published anything worthwhile. He's just an educated narcissist. And he's rude to children. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/neil-degrasse-tyson-girl-on-jupiter/

    Hugh MacDonald March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • change your youtube channel to: Big brain time"

    GamerXwing March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Not a genius.

    Ivan Übermensch March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • PLEASEEEEEEE I NEED EUROPA TO HAVE LIFE. I WANT TO BE ALIVE DURING THE BIGGEST SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY IN THE HISTORY OF HUMANITY

    Prog47 March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Life?…what if it's just a hot empty ocean? Boring shit….

    Fat Farting Dog March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • very well explained, it's simple and it makes sense!

    Edmund Michel March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • God must have flooded Europa. That'll teach em

    consciousnick - March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • titan nasa

    s.kjm14 MX March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • I want a bottle of water made from Europa's water content. How much do you think that would be worth on Earth? 😆

    S.E. Sander March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • you also have Saturns moon Enceladus that has water on it

    mister roberts March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • I pray that in Neil's lifetime he gets to see alien contact and can assist with developing modes of communication and understanding.

    Ben Novick March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Good stuff.

    Snagglefratz March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Neil Degrassi Tyson is a very smart and funny guy we need more scientists like him ☺

    Leader success ! March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • why do they go to mars while europa would.be much better to explore

    Dick De graaf March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Glumac teški jedan od naj većih lažova na svojoj okrugloj zemlji

    Admin Sultanic March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • just like how metal gets warm when you bend it

    Alexandros Mograine March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • i have an idea. take one of the few thousand nuclear warheads in our arsenal and put it on a rocket, send that rocket a few hours before a 2nd rocket with a submarine on it. and blow a massive hole in the ice. merica.

    Ronnie 6767 March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • The laws of physics changes once you leave earth….

    Peter Titus March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • We should move all the Ice Moons to the Goldilocks Zone, melt and clean the water then add engineered plankton and algae.

    Didactic March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • I was wondering… did someone ever dared to show Neil the Netflix movie "IO"?? If not, I really hope he never ever gets to see it. It might actually cause physical harm to him!!

    ITX Official March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • I live on Earth like you do because Jupiter is gassy Venus is bright Mercury’s hot Neptune’s cold Earth is just right so we call Earth the goldy locks planet

    Chicken Gamer YouTube March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Tyson 🖕

    Milos Terzic March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Why would you need to tunnel through the ice if the vents are shooting water vapor into the sky wouldn’t that mean that thats an opening to the sea underneath and a drone could just go in from there?

    Josh Landers March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • ths message to y team MR TYSON WE BEN CALL SOON AS POSBLE RAISE Y TEAM BY MU INFO TO EUROPA BEF TH HIDIND WAT TH HAVE INSD EUROPA POSBLTY TH TAKE ALL TH ARMY TEAM BY TAKIN TH WEPN WHICH TH USE FR EUROPA AND TAKIN OFF SOON TECN CAN NOT SEE THS MOVE HOW TH TALE FR EUROPA TRANSOR TO NEXT PLAND WHICH NAME IS UNKOWING
    IN THS CASE ID THS HAPPEN Y LOSE FUTURE Y DISTUNY IN SPACE
    IAM SPEAKIN 100000000000000000000000000000000000000 303 x CERTLLION 00000000 WE LOSE in SPACE MONEY

    777BENEDICT YARAHMDI March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • 2020 is to long from now!! Just go now!!! Lol ! I want to know wtf is on this Moon 🌝

    Matthew Benoit March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • What if they are frog people there or something?

    Unknown Opinionioid March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • if life IS under the ice surface of Europa, what kind of life do you think it'd be? because it probably doesn't need light (i think).

    Augustus Caesar March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • He said fishes

    Kenneth Harris March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • 👍

    PRINCE INDRAJIT LAW. March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Yes there is life on Europa.. I live there

    Jan Hendrixs March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • #TerraformEuropa

    DJ Cruel March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Can we please fund this voyage so we can find extraterrestrial life and finally eradicate most religions? Can't wait to do the "I told you so" dance in front of the skeptics!

    T White March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Pseudo science

    christian crompton March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • I love you Neil

    Connor Stegner March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • So life is most likely formed in water that's how the evolution of the bacteria is able to evolve into a creature

    The Jokester March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • The liquid life is most likely going to be like the dinosaurs we were lucky enough for the meteor wipe them out so we can live but there is no meteor that wiped them out when they evolved there bacteria I'm positive there's going to be big sea creatures that was able to evolve in those oceans billions of years

    The Jokester March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • Melt a hole with thermite.

    Oshe Shango March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply
  • The time we really find life in Europa, that would be the time I lose my religion 🙂

    Sy .Syarien March 26, 2020 5:02 am Reply

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